2000 Abraham meets Melchizidek, King of Salem and Priest of "God most high" (El Elyon), Genesis 14:18 -20, Hebrews 6:20-7:22). Abraham journeys three days from Beersheba or Gerar to Mt. Moriah in Jerusalem to offer his son Isaac as a sacrifice in obedience to God's command. God provides a ram as a substitute. (Genesis 22, Hebrews 11:8-19). Mt. Moriah is the site of the Temple Mount.
1400 After setting up the Ark at Shiloh near Shechem, Joshua launches the conquest into Jerusalem (Joshua 10:23)
1000 The Jebusite stronghold in Jerusalem is captured by King David. The city of David is built south of the Temple Mount. David reigns thirty-three years in Jerusalem after a 7 year reign in Hebron (2 Samuel 5:1-15). The Ark of the Covenant is returned by David into Jerusalem and placed in the Tabernacle Moses built there. (2 Samuel 6:1-18, 1 Chronicles 15:1-16). David plans to build the First Temple but is not permitted because he is a man of war. He purchases Araunah's threshing floor and erects an altar of sacrifice on Mt. Moriah. This is the site of the First Temple.
950 Solomon with the help of Hiram of Tyre and 183, 600 workers builds the First Temple and royal palace. He uses local limestone, cedar from Lebanon and great amounts of gold and silver. (1 Kings 5:9, 2 Chronicles 2). Solomon also enlarges the city. (1 Kings 7:1-12). Building of temple takes seven years.
935 Civil War. The Kingdom is divided into North (Israel) and South (Judah). Ten Tribes are part of the Northern Kingdom while only two (Judah and Benjamin) belong to the southern.
910 Solomon's Temple is plundered by Shishak (Sheshonk) Pharaoh of Egypt. Much gold and silver are taken. (1 Kings 14:25-28, 2 Chronicles 12:1-11).
835 Joash repairs the Temple, establishes maintenance fund, and brings period of revival and reform to the southern kingdom. (2 Kings 12:5ff).
720 Ahaz king of Judah dismantles Solomon's bronze vessels and places private Syrian altar in the Temple (2 Kings 16:1-20, 2 Chronicles 29-31). He later stripped the gold to pay tribute to Sennacherib.
716 Hezekiah, king of Jerusalem, with help of God and the prophet Isaiah resists Assyrians attempt to capture Jerusalem. (2 Chronicles 32). Wells and springs stopped up.
640 King Josiah repairs the Temple and brings about national religious reforms (2 Chronicles 34-35). Last mention of the Ark of the Covenant.
606 The Babylonian Period. The approaching "times of the gentiles" is signalled by Nebuchadnezzar's conquest of Judah. Jerusalem is taken and the first wave of Jews carried into captivity, Daniel among them. Jerusalem will soon be lose her national sovereignty as a self-governing entity from the time of the Babylonian captivity until the end of the great tribulation period. The Babylonian dominion of Israel is the head-of-gold period (Daniel 2:36-38; 2 Kings 24:1; 2 Chronicles 36:5-6; Daniel 1:1-2; Luke 21:24).
597 Jerusalem is plundered by Nebuchadnezzar for a second time.
597 King Jehoiachin is carried captive by Nebuchadnezzar and the second wave of Jews is taken into Babylon, Ezekiel among them (2 Kings 24:10-16; 2 Chronicles 36:10; Ezekiel 1:2).
587 Zedekiah rebels against Nebuchadnezzar. He is blinded and taken to Babylon where he dies. Zedekiah is the last king in the line of David to reign in Israel until the Messiah reigns during the millennium (Ezekiel 34:23-24; Jeremiah 23:5; 2 Kings 24:18-25:21; 2 Chronicles 36:13-21; Jeremiah 9:1-8).
586 9th of Av. Nebuchadnezzar burns the city, and destroys the Temple. He murders many of the inhabitants and carries off a great number into captivity. (2 Kings 24-25, 2 Chronicles 36). The destruction of Jerusalem is the starting date for the "Times of the Gentiles"--Yeshua said, "Jerusalem shall be trodden down by the gentiles until the times of the gentiles are fulfilled" (Luke 21:24 ). Messiah's return in glory will close this period of Israel's history.
573 Prophet Jeremiah predicts a seventy year captivity in Babylon. The prophet Ezekiel, a captive in Babylon, receives a vision from God giving great detail of a future Temple that is to be built.
553 Belshazzar desecrates the Temple vessels in Babylon. Handwriting on the wall seals his fate that night as Babylon is taken by the Medes and Persians. (Daniel 5)
539 Cyrus, having established himself in control of the Medo-Persian empire in 549 B.C., captures Babylon, and the second world empire to dominate the Jews during the times of the gentiles comes upon the world scene. This is the breast-and-arms-of-silver period (Daniel 2:32, 39; 6:1-3).
538 The edict of Cyrus opens the way for the Jews in Babylon to return to the land (Ezra 1:1-4).
541 The first Jews return to Jerusalem from Babylonian captivity. They rebuild the walls and the city.
536 The seventy years of captivity are over. Cyrus the Persian gives the decree as the prophet Isaiah had predicted 170 years earlier.
517 Through the leadership of Nehemiah and Zerubabel, the Second Temple is completed despite fierce opposition and delays. An altar of sacrifice is built on the Temple Mount. Temple is completed after a fifteen year delay.
332 Flavius Josephus records that Alexander the Great's invading army was met by priests outside of Jerusalem. They convince him not to destroy Jerusalem by showing prophecy contained in Scripture concerning him. Alexander spares city and the Temple.
515 The second temple is dedicated in Jerusalem (Ezra 6:15-18). 537-334 The Persian Period. The Jews are in the land but are under the control of the Persians (Josephus, Antiquities 111:7).
445 Artaxerxes decrees the rebuilding of the walls of Jerusalem, thus beginning Daniel's seventy weeks (Daniel 9:24; Neh 2).
320 Jerusalem is captured by Ptolemy Soter.
314 The city is taken by Antiochus the Great.
301 Jerusalem is captured by Ptolemy Epiphanes.
170 Jerusalem is captured by Antiochus Epiphanes. Antiochus murders Jews and plunders Jerusalem. He offers a pig on the altar and carries off the Temple treasuries. Worship and sacrifice is halted.
166 Judas Maccabaeus leads a Jewish revolt that gains back Jerusalem. Temple is cleansed and sacrifices are restored. (1 Maccabees 4)
164 Jerusalem is besieged by Antiochus Eupator.
141 The Roman fortress is conquered by the Maccabees freeing the Temple from pagan supervision.
126 Jerusalem is besieged by Antiochus Soter.
65 Jerusalem is besieged by Aratus.
63 Jerusalem is captured by the Roman general Pompey. Pompey enters the holy of holies in the Temple and is disappointed to find it empty.
40 Jerusalem is captured by the Parthians.
38 Taken by Herod the Great a cruel ruler who was a ruthless murderer. It was he who ordered the slaughter of the innocents at Bethlehem. (Matt. 2). Herod ordered the Temple enlarged. A new Temple is rebuilt over the sight of Zerubabel's Temple. Temple and courts rebuilt until A.D.
63 City and walls under construction for 46 years (John 2).
334-167 The Hellenistic Period. The Jews, in the land, are under the successive dominion of the Greeks, then the Ptolemies of Egypt, and then the Seleucids of Syria. This is the third great world empire to dominate the Jews during the times of the gentiles. It is the belly-and-thighs-of-brass era (Daniel 2:32. 39; Josephus, Antiquities 11.7-12.6; Daniel 11:2-20).
175-163 The reign of Antiochus IV Epiphanes whom Daniel saw as a type of the coming Antichrist (Daniel 8:1-2; 11:21-35; Josephus, Antiquities 12.5-9; 1 Maccabees 1:16:16; 2 Mac. 4:7-9:28).
167-63 The Maccabean revolt and subsequent Hasmonean dynasty in Judea. A short time of Jewish independence. This is the little-help period of Daniel 11:34. (Josephus, Antiquities 12.6-14.4).
New Testament Events (6 B.C. to A.D. 60)
Luke 2…… Jesus was circumcised and dedicated in the Temple.
Luke 2……At age twelve Matt. At Jesus' temptation, the Devil takes Him to the pinnacle of the Temple.
John………Jesus cleanses the Temple.
Matt. 24…. Jesus pronounces judgment on the Temple.
Acts……… Peter and John heal a lame man at the gate beautiful.
Acts……… Herod puts James to the sword.
29/30 The first Pentecost after the death and resurrection of Jesus sees the coming of the Holy Spirit to create the church by baptizing believers into the body of Christ (1 Corinthians 12:13). The age of the church runs its course within the times of the gentiles between Pentecost and the rapture. This is the great parenthesis. The age of the church is never seen in the Old Testament. The course of the church age is pictured in Matthew 13 and Revelation 2-3. The close of the church age is seen in 1 Timothy 4:1-3; 2 Timothy 3:1-5; 4:34; and 2 Peter 2:1-3; 3:3-4. 29/30 The Messiah Prince is cut off on the cross, and the sixty-ninth week of Daniel's prophecy ends. The prophetic time clock stops for Israel and will not resume again until the tribulation (Daniel 9:26).
40 Roman Emperor Caligula orders an image of himself to be placed in the Holy of Holies. Order is not carried out and Caligula soon dies.
63-70 The Roman Period. This is the fourth great world empire to dominate the Jews in the times of the gentiles. It is the legs-of-iron-and-feet-of clay era of Daniel 2:33 (Josephus, Antiquities 14.4-20.11).
63-70 The time of Israel's travail (Matthew 24:4-8) includes the great revolt against Rome, the coming of the people of the prince, and the fall of the second temple in 70 AD (Daniel 9:26; Matthew 24:2; Josephus, Wars 2:17-7:11) ( PROPHETIC PARADIGM )
70 Roman General Titus lays siege to Jerusalem destroying inhabitants, city, and Temple. The Temple is set afire.
132-135 The Jewish revolt of Bar Kokhba against Rome.
135-1948 The second exile of the Jews (the diaspora).
135 The city of Jerusalem is sacked by the Emperor Hadrian.
395-636 Byzantine rule in Palestine.
614 Jerusalem is taken by the Persians.
629 Jerusalem captured by Heraclius.
636 Beginning of Arab rule in Palestine.
637 Jerusalem captured by the Saracens under Omar ibn al-Khatab.
691 The Dome of the Rock is completed on the temple mount where the Jewish temple previously stood. Until this day it dominates the only spot on earth where sacrifices can be offered according to the Torah.
1076 Atsiz takes Jerusalem from the Caliph al-Mostanther Billah.
1095 al-Afdhal ibn Bedr captures the city for Egypt after a 40 day siege.
1099 The Crusaders take Jerusalem. Christians rule in Palestine intermittently from 1099 to the year 1244.
1099 The Crusaders, under Godfrey de Bouillon, capture Jerusalem.
1187 Jerusalem captured by Salah-ed-Din the great Moslem conqueror.
1244 Sacked by the Mongol Hordes.
1247 Jerusalem captured by the Carizmians.
1517 Ottoman Turks under Saladin conquer Palestine. The present walls that surround the old city of Jerusalem are built.
1517 Selim I takes the city bringing it into the Ottoman Empire.
1822 Jerusalem taken by Ibrahim Pasha of Egypt.
1897 The first Zionist Congress meets in Basel.
1917 Jerusalem captured by General Allenby of Britain. He humbly walks into the city of Jerusalem.
1947 United Nations resolution that Jerusalem become an "international city".
1948 War between newly established Israel against Jordan and Egypt in Jerusalem after which part of the city remains under Israeli rule and part under Jordan.
1967 Israel recaptured the city of Jerusalem from Jordan after defeating Jordan, Egypt, and Syria in the infamous 6-day war. ( The "Times of the Gentiles" might have ended in this year had Israel exercised its sovereignty over Jerusalem )
2000 The sovereignty over the city of Jerusalem, and its Temple Mount prove to be a burdensome dilemma for the world's Peace crafters.
2001 The Temple Mount and Land of Israel faithful pledge undying allegiance to the city, and portend to rebuild the sacred Temple on Mount Moriah once again! ( "The Times of the Gentiles" continues )
Luke 21:24 And they shall fall by the edge of the sword, and shall be led away captive into all nations: and Jerusalem shall be trodden down of the Gentiles, until the times of the Gentiles be fulfilled.
Dan 2:40-45 And the fourth kingdom shall be strong as iron: forasmuch as iron breaketh in pieces and subdueth all things: and as iron that breaketh all these, shall it break in pieces and bruise. And whereas thou sawest the feet and toes, part of potters' clay, and part of iron, the kingdom shall be divided; but there shall be in it of the strength of the iron, forasmuch as thou sawest the iron mixed with miry clay. And as the toes of the feet were part of iron, and part of clay, so the kingdom shall be partly strong, and partly broken. And whereas thou sawest iron mixed with miry clay, they shall mingle themselves with the seed of men: but they shall not cleave one to another, even as iron is not mixed with clay. And in the days of these kings shall the God of heaven set up a kingdom, which shall never be destroyed: and the kingdom shall not be left to other people, but it shall break in pieces and consume all these kingdoms, and it shall stand for ever. Forasmuch as thou sawest that the stone ( Jesus Christ ) was cut out of the mountain without hands, and that it brake in pieces the iron, the brass, the clay, the silver, and the gold; the great God hath made known to the king what shall come to pass hereafter: and the dream is certain, and the interpretation thereof sure.
Jesus Christ will end the "Times of the Gentiles" when he returns and establishes his throne in the city of Jerusalem! Even so, Come Lord Jesus!