Israel and the Church:
on Jerusalem, in its continuing endeavor to make available interesting and
doctrinally sound articles associated with Bible Prophecy offers this concise,
but excellent article on the complex relationship of Israel and the Church by
Dr. Thomas McCall. FOJ hopes that its presentation will inspire your further
interest in the wonderful study of the amazing prophetic world of the Holy Bible
and the significance of Israel in the end-times plan of God. (06-01-2006)
Israel and the Church:
Thomas S. McCall, Th.D.
One of the great
theological battlegrounds of orthodox Christianity throughout the centuries has
been the nature and character of the Church, especially in relation to its
biblical predecessor, Israel. The two major views are that:
The Church is a
continuation of Israel
The Church is completely
different from Israel
First View: The Church is
The predominant view
has been that the Church is the “new” Israel, a continuation of the concept of
Israel which began in the Old Testament. In this view, the Church is the
refinement and higher development of the concept of Israel. All of the promises
made to Israel in the Scriptures find their fulfillment in the Church. Thus, the
prophecies relating to the blessing and restoration of Israel to the Promised
Land are “spiritualized” into promises of blessing to the Church. The prophecies
of condemnation and judgment, though, are retained literally by the Jewish
nation of Israel.
This view is
sometimes called Replacement Theology, because the Church is seen to replace
Israel in God’s economy. One of the problems with the view, among others, is the
continuing existence of the Jewish people, especially with regard to the revival
of the new modern state of Israel. If Israel has been condemned to extinction,
and there is no divinely ordained future for the Jewish nation, how does one
account for the supernatural survival of the Jewish people since the
establishment of the Church, for almost 2,000 years against all odds?
Furthermore, how does one account for Israel’s resurgence among the family of
nations as an independent nation, victorious in several wars and flourishing
Second View: Israel and
the Church are Different
The other view, we
believe, is clearly taught in the New Testament, but it has been suppressed
throughout most of Church history. This view is that the Church is completely
different and distinct from Israel, and the two should not be confused. In fact,
the Church is an entirely new creation that came into being on the Day of
Pentecost after Christ’s resurrection from the dead, and will continue until it
is taken to Heaven at the Rapture return of the Lord (Eph.
1:9-11). None of the curses or blessings pronounced upon Israel
refers directly to the Church. The Church enters into the Abrahamic and New
Covenants, for instance, only by divine application, not by original
This leaves all the
covenants, promises, and warnings to Israel intact. Israel, the natural Jewish
nation, is still Israel. To be sure, Israel has been side-lined during these
past 1,900 years of the Diaspora. The Church has taken center stage in the
Lord’s affairs as the Gospel has spread throughout the world. Nevertheless, God
has carefully preserved the Jewish people, even in unbelief, through every kind
of distress and persecution. Sometimes, the professing Church itself (I speak to
our shame) has been a cause of these persecutions to the Jews.
Not only has God
preserved the Jewish nation, but He has also kept His promise to save a remnant
of Israel in every generation. The remnant of Israel in this age are the Jewish
believers in Christ who have joined the Gentile believers, and form the Church,
the Body of Christ (Rom.
11:5). In this respect, then, a part of Israel (the believing
remnant) intersects with the Church during the Church Age. But this does not
make Israel the Church, or vice versa.
In the future, both
God’s warnings and promises to Israel will come to pass. After the Lord is
finished with the Church Age, and has taken the Church to Heaven in the Rapture
Thess. 4:16-18), God will restore Israel to center stage on the
world’s divine theater. First comes the devastating “Time of Jacob’s Trouble” (Jer.
30:7) also known as the Great Tribulation. This is a dreadful period
of seven years, which begins relatively lightly during the first half, but
intensifies into full focus during the latter half. During this time the world
is judged for rejecting Christ, but, more specifically, Israel is judged, purged
and prepared through the fiery trials of the Great Tribulation for the Second
Coming of the Messiah. This is the bad news.
The good news is
that, when Christ does return to the earth at the end of the Tribulation, Israel
will be ready, willing, and eager to receive Him, and proclaim,
“Blessed is He who comes in the name of the Lord”
As the stumbling of Israel brought blessing to the world at Christ’s First
Coming, the reception of Israel to Christ at His Second Advent will be like
“life from the dead”
The remnant of Israel which survives the Tribulation (some one-third of the
Jewish people who enter the Tribulation), will be saved, and the Lord will
establish His kingdom on the same earth and the same capital city, Jerusalem,
that rejected Him centuries before. Israel will be the head of the nations, and
no longer the tail, and all nations will send representatives to Jerusalem to
honor and worship the King of Kings and Lord of Lords (Isa.
2:2-3; Micah 4:1). The Church will return with Christ, and will rule
with Him for a thousand years (Rev.
20:1-5). He Himself told His disciples that they would rule over the
12 tribes of Israel in the restoration (Matt.
19:28). Thus, Israel has not been forgotten in God’s plan. While the
Jewish nation still has a dark period facing it, there is a glorious finale to
Israel’s long history.
How Did the Church Decide
the Demise of Israel?
The New Testament
Church was very much involved with the vicissitudes of Israel. Jesus is an
Israeli, as were all the apostles, and the concerns of Israel, spiritually and
politically, were very much a part of their lives. The greatest struggles the
early Church had were over the relationship between Israel and the Church, law
and grace, and the fellowship between Jewish and Gentile believers in Christ
(Galatians). Many of the Jewish believers were not comfortable with the Gentile
believers at first; and as time went on and Gentiles began to predominate
numerically, the attitudes were reversed. Galatians shows how the Jewish party
tried to impose the Mosaic Law on Gentile Christians, and Romans shows how the
Gentile party began to
“boast against the branches”
resenting the place of Israel in history and theology.
It took some time,
perhaps a couple of centuries, but eventually the vast Gentile majority in the
Church began to view Israel as a vestigial organ that had outlived its
usefulness. In fact, the predominant Christian view was that the destruction of
Jerusalem and the Temple by the Romans in 70 AD signaled the official and
divinely-ordained end of the Jewish nation, never more to be re-instituted as a
national entity. The fact that Jerusalem lay in ruins and the Jewish people were
scattered over the world was seen as conclusive evidence that God was forever
finished with national Israel. If there were any purpose for the existence of
the Jewish people, it was to remind the world of the severe judgment of God upon
a disobedient people.
If this harsh view of
Israel were true, though, what of the promises of God to Israel in the Old
Testament? For those who claimed to believe in the entire Bible as the Word of
God, this was a great problem. How could a faithful God not keep His promises to
His ancient people? To deal with this took extraordinary theological dexterity
and alchemy. The theologians had to propose that Israel in the Scriptures did
not really mean Israel, especially when it came to the promises of eternal
blessing. Instead, Israel meant something else, something that came to be known
in the New Testament as the Church. The Church became the new Israel, and
through this remarkable transformation, wherever blessing is promised to Israel
in the Old Testament, it was interpreted to mean the Church. This is Replacement
Theology, in which the Church has become Israel.
was already around before the end of the First Century, but did not become the
official position of professing Christian leadership until Augustine popularized
the concept, primarily in THE CITY OF GOD, in the latter part of the Fourth
Century. Augustine actually states that he was previously a Chiliast, meaning
that he was a believer in the thousand-year reign of Christ on the earth after
His return. This is the same as our current description of Premillennialism.
However, he had come to the conclusion that this view was “carnal,” and had
adopted the view that the reign of Christ would be something more “spiritual,”
and would actually occur during the Church Age. Such a view necessitated the
extinction of Israel, and the cancellation of all promises God made to the
Jewish nation. These promises of blessing would now be fulfilled within the
framework of the Church.
This view, which had
been latent in Christendom, now flourished throughout the Byzantine world. From
this point on, the theological legs were cut out from under Israel, and the
predominant Christian theology was that there was no future for Israel.
Replacement Theology has been the rule that has survived the Middle Ages, the
Crusades and the Reformation in Church History. Only during the last Century or
so has the Premillennial concept of the future of Israel come to the forefront
in evangelical Christianity. Even so, it is a minority view.
Does Israel’s Future
Demean the Church’s Glory?
Some suggest that if
Israel has not ceased to exist in its covenant relationship to God, and if
Israel still has a future in the divine plan, this somehow diminishes the
position of the Church. Is such a concern valid? It is almost as though the
Church has been jealous of Israel, and afraid that if it recognized Israel’s
future promises, it would somehow demean Christ and the Church. Nothing could be
further from the truth.
It is when the Church
recognizes Israel that the true distinctiveness and glory of the Body of Christ
becomes evident. This called-out body, composed of believing Jews and Gentiles
during the Church Age, is the highest entity the Lord has created, superior to
the universe, all the Angels, the nations, and Israel. Our Head, our Husband,
our Friend is the Son of God Himself. We shall reign with Him when He rules the
earth, and our 12 Founding Apostles will rule over the 12 tribes of Israel. The
Angels themselves will study us forever as the greatest exhibit of God’s grace,
and we will actually judge the Angels. This is our destiny, and this writer, for
one, would not trade his position in the Body of Christ with any creature in the
universe! Why, then, be disturbed over what God has promised the Jewish people?
Why be jealous over the future destiny of Israel? How short sighted of us!
Indeed, the Church’s finest and most distinctive hour will be when Israel is
restored nationally and spiritually to the Lord at the Second Coming of Christ.
We will return from Heaven with Him as His glorious Bride to rule Israel and the
world. What more could we ask?
So, if we are not to
suffer from spiritual myopia, we must recognize what the Lord is doing with
Israel, not shrinking from it as though our own interests will be overshadowed.
Rather, we rejoice in these developments, with full assurance that our own
redemption draws ever closer.